Semiprecious stones like tourmaline, aquamarine/ beryl, garnet, kyanite, amethyst, citrine, smoky quartz (quartz crystals); and precious stones like ruby, sapphire etc. are known only from few districts.
Tourmaline: Five distinct types of tourmaline are known from Nepal (Basset 1978). Gem quality distinct multihued tourmaline (elbaite) of Hyakule and Phakuwa; pink, bright green, light orange sometimes with repeated color banding, olive green with amber colored core are known from Hyakule, Eastern Nepal. Small-scale mines of aquamarine, beryl, tourmalines are in operation. Pegmatites of Langtang valley (Rasuwa) and Naje (Manang) are also promising for beryl/ aquamarine and tourmaline. Two tourmaline mines are in operation in Daha area in Jajarkot.
Beryl/ Aquamarine of Taplejung (Ikabu, Lodantar) area are high prized. Similarly hambergite, danburite, and ijolite are the important gemstones that are found in Nepal. In Taplejung beryl and aquamarine mines are in operation where as the tourmaline mines are still in development stage. Gem quality clear blue aquamarine of Phakuwa (Sakhuwasabha), aquamarine/ beryl and few green colored tourmalines from Naje and few other localities in Manang district (Tamrakar, 1990, and Einfalt et al, 1995), western Nepal are reported. Lekhpatan and Tikachaur in Jajarkot; Jagat, Panchmane, Kagtigaon, in Kathmandu; Baguwa, Tarkeghyang, Nibuwagaon in Sindhupalchok are the other known places for Beryl.
Garnets are recorded from strongly tectonized lenses and pods of chlorite-biotite-garnet schist within high-grade metamorphic rock sequence mainly in the Higher Himalayan region. Deep red or red colored almandine, hessonite and pyrope garnet are mined mainly in Sankhuwasabha and Taplejung districts. Small-scale garnet mines were in operation in Budhekhani, Bhote Khola, Hanglaung, Khining, Sunamla, and Swachi Khani in Sankhuwasabha district.
Kyanites are known mainly from Dolakha, Sankhuwasabha, Taplejung, Rasuwa, Dhadhing and Jajarkot Achham districts. Four small-scale kyanite mines are in operation in Daha and Suneri in Jajarkot and Barah of Aachham districts. Elongated tabular inky blue kyanite crystals are cut for gems.
Rubies and Sapphire: Gem quality but generally small crystal of light red to red ruby and light to dark blue colored sapphire are known from in Chumar, Ruyil (Dhadhing) and Lari/ Ganesh Himal (Rasuwa). They occur in highly tectonized intensely folded en-echelon lenses of sacchoroidal dolomite within the high-grade metamorphic rocks close to MCT.
Quartz Crystals (Rock Crystal): Two small-scale quartz crystals mines are in operation from pegmatites in Khejemi/ Sirku (Taplejung) and Raluka (Nuwakot). Quartz crystals are also known from different parts of Jajarkot, Dailekh, Dhadhing, Rasuwa, Nuwakot, Sakhuwasabha, Ilam and Taplejung districts. Only colored verities e.g. mainly amethyst, citrine and smoky quartz are cut for gems.
4.2.3 Decorative and Dimension Stones
Marble: Pink, gray and white colored marble deposit (1.63 million ton) is located in Godavari, Lalitpur district. Based on this deposit Godavari marble industries (Pvt.) Ltd. is established. Its annual production capacity is about 80,000m2 polished marble slabs. It is producing about 50,000m2 to 70,000m2 polished marble slabs and some crazy marble, chips and aggregate as bi-products. Based on Anekot (Kavre) marble deposit Everest marble and allied industry is in operation. Recently Nawadurga Marble Industry Pvt. Ltd is developing marble quarry in Chhatre Deurali in Dhadhing.
Granites are known from, Makwanpur (Palung and Ipa), Sindhuli, Udaypur, Dadeldhura in the Lesser Himalaya. Course grained, massive granites are used as decorative and dimension stones. Granites are also known from the Higher Himalayan and Inner Himalayan (Tethys) region.
Quartzite is a hard metamorphic rock which consists of mainly quartz. It is abundantly known from many districts like Taplejung, Ilam, Panchthar, Solukhumbu, Dhankuta, Ramechhap, Sindhupalchok, Makwanpur, Dhadhing, Nuwakot, Tanahun, Kaski, Syangja, Parbat, Baglung, Beni, Dang, Sallyan, Rolpa, Rukum, Jajarkot, Achham, Doti, Bajhang, Bajura, Dadeldhura, Baitadi, Darchula and few other districts.
Slate is the common roofing and pavement material that is extensively mined from different parts of Dhankuta, Sindhupalchok, Ramechhap, Nuwakot, Sindhupalchok, Dhadhing, Baglung, Parbat, Jajarkot, Achham, Doti, Dadeldhura, Baitadi, Bajhang, Bajura and many other districts since historic time.